A caccia dei segreti di Antikythera

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A caccia dei segreti di Antikythera

Messaggioda Bron ElGram » venerdì 19 settembre 2014, 22:28


A caccia dei segreti di Antikythera
Il moto delle stelle lo calcolava un pc siciliano. Venti secoli fa. Si chiamava Antikythera ed è il più antico "computer" mai ritrovato. Ora un gruppo di sommozzatori scenderà a 150 metri di profondità per scoprirne i segreti.

Immagine
Il "Meccanismo di Antikythera"

A più di un secolo di distanza dal primo ritrovamento gli archeologi tornano nel Mar Egeo, nel luogo dove attorno al 60 a.C. affondò la nave romana che trasportava antikythera, il più antico “computer” mai scoperto.

Obiettivo della missione è quello di scoprire ulteriori dettagli sulle origini di questa macchina e su come divenne parte del carico di quello sforntunato viaggio.

COMPUTER... DI BRONZO. Secondo i ricercatori il meccanismo di antikytera è un complicato calcolatore astronomico di fabbricazione greca utilizzato per determinare la posizione delle stelle e dei pianeti. Gli esami al radiocarbonio lo fanno risalire a oltre 2000 anni fa.

Il suo cuore è un articolato sistema composto da oltre 30 ingranaggi in bronzo e quando venne recuperato, nel 1901, era custodito all’interno di una scatola di legno riccamente istoriata. Come finì sulla nave romana è a oggi un mistero: una delle ipotesi è che fosse parte della dote di una nobildonna in viaggio verso la capitale per sposarsi.

ARCHEO SUB Per scoprirne di più gli archeologi si stanno preparando a scendere a 150 metri di profondità utilizzando speciali tute pressurizzate: questi gioielli tecnologici permetteranno loro di esplorare il relitto della nave romana per ore a caccia di dettagli. Un robot esplorerà il fondo marino prima degli scienziati e cercherà tracce di una seconda nave che si sospetta possa essere affondata nelle vicinanze.

Immagine
La tuta pressurizzata da un milione di euro che verrà utilizzata dagli scienziati per scendere a 150 metri di profondità. | DA TWITTER

LA TUTA. Simila a una tuta spaziale, la tuta pressurizzata permetterà ai ricercatori di muoversi sul fondo del mare e all'interno del relitto in tutta sicurezza e senza limiti di tempo: l'aria viene infatti direttamente pompata dalla superficie dentro lo scafandro e durante l'emersione non è necessario decomprimere.

L'operatore all'interno della tuta viene calato e recuperato dal fondo grazie a un cavo collegato alla nave d'appoggio in soli 3 minuti.
Il dispositivo è inoltre dotato di un sistema di propulsione che consente a chi la indossa di muoversi con discreta agilità sul fondo del mare.

CACCIA AL TESORO. Fino ad oggi i ricercatori hanno potuto esplorare la zona del naufragio fermandosi a soli 60 metri di profondità e recuperando 36 statue di marmo, gioielli, oro e resti umani.

«Ci sono ancora decine di oggetti sparsi sul fondo: questa nave trasportava immense ricchezze provenienti dall’Asia Minore» spiega alle agenzie di stampa Dimitris Kourkomelis, uno degli archeologi che sfiderà le profondità del Mediterraneo.

Ma il vero tesoro oggetto della ricerca sono i pezzi mancanti di antikythera.

http://www.focus.it/cultura/storia/a-ca ... ntikythera
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ANTIKYTHERA: MYSTERY REVEALED

Messaggioda Bron ElGram » venerdì 3 aprile 2015, 16:43


ANTIKYTHERA: MYSTERY REVEALED

The smartest machine that ever existed in the world which can do simplest of the things to the hardest is human. In technical terms if one can compare human body with that of any machine one can call human body as a biomechanical structure with smallest of the parts and delicate joints to larger parts with complexities, all of which are centrally controlled by a CPU or one can call it as a super computer with infinite RAM and infinite memory storage capacity. Many smart and useful things have been invented by mankind from many past centuries. Computer which is dominating everywhere these days is one of the most useful things ever invented. From large super computers for heavy data processing to small and cheaper computers for learning and experimenting new things are evolving now and then these days. All these things are leading the world towards a smart future. Charles Babbage is the one who designed the first computer which had basic units which are implemented even today in modern computers so he is called as the father of computer, but there were attempts earlier to develop a machine which can simplify the hefty task of calculation and accounting and even to solve complex mathematical problems to solve and explore things in fields like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy etc.,

Today I will be talking about history in this post apart from the tech things I have written in my 2 posts till now ( Don’t worry I won’t remind you those boring History classes ), One can call this post as a tech history too.

So let me start,
Immagine

The team and the sponge divers on the Greek navy ship Mykali in win 1901, Searching and pulling objects from Antikythera shipwreck. (Image credits: Wikimedia).
One day, in the year 1901 some under water divers jumped in the Aegean Sea near the banks of an island to find ship wrecks of a very old ship which had crashed there centuries ago. They found many precious and valuable things like idols, artistic pieces and many more things. After a lot of research archaeologists predicted that those shipwrecks are as old as 2000 years, i.e. they all belonged to a period before 150 B.C. Out of all those valuable items there existed one piece of wreck covered totally with mud. Archaeologists ignored it thinking that it might be a decorative item belonging to the ship, but somebody broke it out of curiosity to find what it is and what came out really stunned everybody.

Yes the wreck belonged to an ancient machine which is famously called as first ‘Analog Computer’ and archaeologists fondly call its mechanism as Antyikythera mechanism and known to world as just Antikythera. The name of the island I mentioned is a small Greek island called Antikythera.

The piece discovered had circular structures embedded in it. After proper examination those circular structures were found to be gear wheels. That totally shocked historians because gear wheel technology was found to be invented and implemented in 13th century and these ship wrecks were of the time before 150 B.C. During the time of its discovery there wasn't any technology available to restore and examine all the parts of the Antikythera so scientists assumed those might be gear wheels of a Clock.

In 1950 a physicist used X-ray imaging to create images of all the parts of antikythera and the result was still more shocking. It had total 32 Gear wheels. One gear wheel had 235 teethes and one more had 127 teethes carved on it. So what exactly those gear wheels were and was it just a clock were the questions raised.


Mystery Revealed: After a lot of experimentation and research scientists found that those 32 gear wheels belonged to a complex machine which was used to keep track of movements and changes in the solar system. This might sound simple and easy but the technology and complexity involved in that machine is no less than a match to modern day technology. Scientists found that Antikythera was used to keep track of movement of son along with 5 visible planets at that time including Earth. It was also used to keep track of events like Solar and Lunar Eclipses, Olympic Games and it also involved metonic calendar. The design was so accurate that it was able to find the number of eclipses in coming thousand years with accurate date and time along with the direction from which eclipse starts along with the colour of moon during eclipse, a fact hard to believe but true.

It is said that most of the technology and science behind Antikythera had been adopted by the ancient Babylonian Civilisation. Babylonian Civilisation is famous for its huge amount of knowledge regarding Astronomy.

Immagine

Technology: The movement of Sun and planets are such that it’s not that easy to put all of them on a single machine using a couple of gear wheels. We were taught in school that earth takes one full round of sun in 365 days but in reality it’s a quarter day more than 365, that’s not exactly a quarter too. There are still many more things, like if we search the time gap between two eclipses and time difference between solar and lunar calendars, none of the figures describe those ends with round figures. The design involves a very complex mathematical analysis and mechanical implementation to create Antikythera. The technology is so advanced like those of present day technology and the interesting part is it is implemented in a machine which belongs to 87th B.C. So there were gears with 127 teethes and 232 teethes and many more which were used to control the motion of planets and give information accurately like computers keep track of processes these days using a microprocessor. Those gear wheels together can be compared with an ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) of present day computer. Scientists calculated the angular speed of all the gear wheels together as 13.36842. This is nothing but ratio of time taken by earth to revolve around sun to the number of lunar months in that time period. The ratio found using modern day technology is 13.368267 hence the error in Antikythera can be calculated as 1/86000 which is so small and can be neglected. Achieving this much accuracy in a time like 87th B.C. is really commendable.

Discovery of Antikythera is a blow to whatever history has been written regarding scientific discoveries till date. None of the people knknewew that planets moved in an elliptic curve until Kepler discovered it and gear wheels were unheard till 13th Century and the interesting and shocking part is all these were implemented in a Antikythera which belongs to an era prior to 150th B.C.

One more important question which arises is who created it. The astronomical calculations involved indicates that these are the observations which can be only made in the area of Corinth of ancient Greece. Syracuse is a Corinth colony and also home to Archimedes. One of the assumptions tell that he can be the one who created Antikythera.

Discoveries like Antikythera proves the wisdom and knowledge of our ancestors which is as old as suns and moons and as advanced as todays modern day technologies and which nearly equals to the basic working structure of a computer so Antikythera is also called as the first Analog Computer found ever. These discoveries not only tell the saga of our ancestors' wisdom but also gives clues that there might be some more such technologies like the hidden scientific knowledge in Indian manuscripts like Vedas and Upanishads lying out there waiting for someone to discover.

Hope this was an informative one. Many more such things are on its way. For more such things keep an eye around this place.

- Sumanth Shenoy
http://www.musemalady.com/science-and-t ... y-revealed
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